Finally a non-science course, purely a technical one, I can’t wait to make my hands dirty on web development. I think every developer whether he/she is front end or back end knows web development more or less, but to make your site/single page application professional and pretty, you have to go through some courses systematically.

Most concepts are straightforward and simple, so I will only take note of those which are tricky and exceptional.

Course 1: HTML, CSS and JavaScript

Week 1: HTML & CSS

Void (empty) elements and self-closing start tags in HTML

The void elements can only have a start tag since they can’t have any content. They must not have an end tags in HTML. The void elements in HTML 4.01/XHTML 1.0 Strict include area, base, br, col, hr, img, input, link, meta, param. HTML 5 currently adds command, keygen, source to that list.

The opposite problem is when an element that can have content is empty. If it is not a void element, it must still have an end tag.

Week 2: Introduction to JavaScript

Data Types

  • Number
  • String
  • Boolean
  • Other e.g. Object

Global variable: if you assign a variable without declaring it with var in any place whether in a function or not, the variable automatically become a global variable, and the whole script can access it.

Week 3: Advanced JavaScript

There are 3 kinds of for loops:

  1. for
  2. for … in

    like this:

     var continents = ["Austrilia", "Africa", "Antarctica", "Eurasia", "America"];
     for ( var index in continents) {}

    remember that index is a number, not an object in the continents array.

    In other situation like this:

     var onePerson = {initials: "DR", age: 40, job: "Professor"};
     for ( var property in onePerson ) {}

    The property gives the left hand side of the object onePerson.

  3. for … of

     var continents = ["Austrilia", "Africa", "Antarctica", "Eurasia", "America"];
     for ( var continent in continents) {}

    Here the continent is each element of the array continents, this syntax is equivalent to the Python for ... in ....

splice can be used to remove or add or replace some element from or into an array.

  • To remove elements at a position: array.splice(startPosition, quantity), and it returns the removed elements.
  • To add an element before a position: array.splice(position, 0, element), and it returns empty array [].
  • To replace an element: array.splice(position, quantity, elements), and it returns the removed elements.

array functions

  • forEach
  • map

Whitespace Nodes

There may be some text nodes which contains only whitespace, sometimes this is troublesome.

Course 2: Front-End Web UI Frameworks and Tools

Week 1: Front-end Web UI Frameworks Overview: Bootstrap

The container class uses fixed width depending on the screen size, container-fluid uses the full width of screen.

These 3 lines of code must be contained in head section prior to enabling Bootstrap.

    <meta charset="uft-8">
    <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge">
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">

Media Queries are the CSS technology to apply some styles based on the size of the viewport e.g.

@media screen and (min-width:600px){
    /* CSS customized for desktop */


<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">

The viewport meta tag:

  • Ensure the screen width is set to the device width and content is rendered with the width in mind.
  • Designing the websites responsive to the size of the viewport (Bootstrap grid system).

If you don’t specify classes for some screen size, for example, you only specify col-sm-5 for an element, then on medium and large screen, Bootstrap will choose the specification for smaller screen, which is col-sm-5 class in this case.

Week 2: Bootstrap CSS Components; Week 3: Bootstrap Javascript Components; Week 4: Web Tools

I’m tired of Bootstrap’s tedious class names, I won’t put details here about them.

Course 3: Front-End JavaScript Frameworks: AngularJS

Week 1: Front-End Javascript Frameworks: AngularJS Overview

ng-init is used to

  • Evaluate an expression
  • Initialize a JavaScript variable

Week 2: Web tools: Grunt and Gulp

Grunt and Gulp automate many things using tasks. Grunt is based on files while Gulp is a streaming build system.

Week 3: Single Page Applications

Two commonly used automation tools: Grunt and Gulp. The comparison between them:

  • Grunt uses Configuration over Code
  • Gulp uses Code over Configuration

Dependency Injection involves four roles:

  • The service
  • The client
  • The interfaces
  • The injector

Dependency Annotation in Angualar

  • Inline array annotation

      module.controller('MenuController', ['$scope', 'menuFactory', function($scope, menuFactory){
  • $inject property annotation

      var MenuController = function($scope, menuFactory) {
      MenuController.$inject = ['$scope', 'menuFactory'];
      module.controller('MenuController',  MenuController);
  • Implicit annotation

      module.controller('MenuController', function($scope, menuFactory) {

    Angular Services

  • Substitudable objects wired together using DI
  • Allow organizing and sharing code across an app
  • Lazily instantiated
  • Singletons

Five functions that declare services

  • serveice()
  • factory()
  • provider()
  • constant()
  • value()

Week 4: Client-Server Communication and Angular Testing

Course 4: Multiplatform Mobile App Development with Web Technologies

week 1: Hybrid Mobile App Development Frameworks: An Introduction

week 2: More Ionic CSS and JavaScript

week 3: Deploying your App

week 4: Accessing Native Capabilities of Devices: Cordova and ngCordova

Course 5: Server-side Development with NodeJS

Week 1: Introduction to Server-side Development

JavaScript doesn’t provide standard library, CommanJS API fills this gap by defining API for common application needs. It defines a module format, Node follows module specification.

  • Each file is its own module.
  • The module variable gives access to the current module definition in a file.
  • The module.exports determines the export of the current module.
  • The require function is used to import a module.

When you import core modules or external modules, do like this require("module_name"). When you are importing an external module, Node.js will look for the external module in ./node_modules/ or ../node_modules/ or ../../node_modules/ ... until the module is found.

Stateless server:

  • Server side should not track the client side state:

    Every request is a new request from the client side.

  • Client side should track its own state:

    • E.g. using cookies; client side database
    • Every request must include sufficient information so server side can serve up requested information
    • Client side MVC setup

Node.js callbacks

A brief introduction of callback from nodejitsu:

This works just fine and is very typical in other development environments. However, if fetchData takes a long time to load the data (maybe it is streaming it off the drive or the internet), then this causes the whole program to ‘block’ - otherwise known as sitting still and waiting - until it loads the data. Node.js, being an asynchronous platform, doesn’t wait around for things like file I/O to finish - Node.js uses callbacks. A callback is a function called at the completion of a given task; this prevents any blocking, and allows other code to be run in the meantime.

function asyncOperation ( a, b, c, callback ) {
  // ... lots of hard work ...
  if ( /* an error occurs */ ) {
    return callback(new Error("An error has occured"));
  // ... more work ...
  callback(null, d, e, f);

asyncOperation ( params.., function ( err, returnValues.. ) {
   //This code gets run after the async operation gets run

Week 2: MongoDB and Mongoose

Four broad categories of NoSQL Databases

  • Document databases (e.g., MongoDB)
  • Key-value databases (e.g., Redis)
  • Column family databases (e.g., Cassadra)
  • Graph databases (e.g., Neo4J)


With MongoDB, you can manipulate data with less explicit code.

Run mongo in terminal to enter MongoDB REPL.

use conFusion
db.dishes.insert({ name: "Uthapizza", description: "Test" });
var id = new ObjectId();


Mongoose enables to use schema in MongoDB

var mongoose = require('mongoose');
var Schema = mongoose.Schema;
var Currency = mongoose.Types.Currency;

// create a schema
var promotionSchema = new Schema({
    name: {
        type: String,
        required: true,
        unique: true
    description: {
        type: String,
        required: true
    image: {
        type: String,
        required: true
    label: {
        type: String,
        required: true,
        default: ""
    price: {
        type: Currency
}, {
    timestamps: true

// the schema is useless so far
// we need to create a model using it
var Promotions = mongoose.model('Promotion', promotionSchema);

// make this available to our Node applications
module.exports = Promotions;

Week 3: User Authentication

Cookie + Session Authentication

  • Cookie set on the client side by the server
  • Cookie is used as a storage for session ID that is used as an index into server-side storage of session information.

Why Token-Based Authentication

  • Session authentication becomes a problem when we need stateless servers and scalability
  • Mobile application platforms have a hard time handling cookies/sessions
  • Sharing authentication with other applications not feasible
  • Cross-origin resource sharing (CORS) problem
  • Cross-site request forgery (CSRF)

Token-based Authentication

  1. User requests access with their username and password
  2. Server validates credentials
  3. Server creates a signed token and sends it to the client – Nothing stored on the server
  4. All subsequent requests from the client should include the token
  5. Server verifies the token and responds with data if validated

Week 4: Backend as a Service (BaaS)

MongoDB and Relations

  • NoSQL databases like MongoDB do not explicitly support relations like the SQL databases
  • All documents are normally expected to be self- contained
  • However you can store references to other documents within a document by using ObjectIds
  • Mongoose does not have joins

Mongoose Population works like Joining of Relational Database

//Modified Comment Schema
var commentSchema = new Schema({
        rating: { 
            type: Number, 
            min: 1, 
            max: 5, 
            required: true 
        comment:  { 
            type: String, 
            required: true 
        postedBy: {
            type: mongoose.Schema.Types.ObjectId,
            ref: 'User'
    {timestamps: true});

// Populating the Documents
.exec(function (err, dish) {
    if (err) throw err;

SSL/TLS Handshake

SSL/TLS Handshake by Prof. Jogesh	K.	Muppala

OAuth 2 Roles

  • Resource owner: You, the user that authorizes a client application to access their account
  • Client Application: Application (website or app) that wants access to the resource server to obtain information about you
  • Resource Server: Server hosting protected data (e.g., your personal information)
  • Authorization Server: Server that issues an access token to the client application to request resource from the resource server

OAuth 2 Tokens

  • Access token: allows access to user data by the client application
    • Has limited lifetime
    • Need to be kept confidential
    • Scope: parameter used to limit the rights of the access token
  • Refresh token: Used to refresh an expired access token

authorization code grand approach by Prof. Jogesh	K.	Muppala